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HE Utopia:大学教师发展博客

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关于教学  

2010-09-23 17:01:42|  分类: 高等教育 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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教师的现状也需要改革。学校总是对教师关注本科教育提出殷切期望,但是由于缺乏激励措施和充满文化歧视,这些期望都无法真正落实。如果学校领导人能提出激励措施,一些改革可以迅速贯彻下去。虽然存在教师终身聘任制的障碍,一些对本科教育改革无动于衷的学系,还是可以仿效其他效率低下学系推进机构改革的做法。从长远看,教学工作应该成为教师聘用的重要标准之一,而不是一个可有可无的因素。校友、家长、学生应该积极推动这一改革。学校主管部门应该坚持这一原则。应该建立诚实的教学评价机制——就像评终身教授资格时采取校外评审制度那样,做到廉正、无偏见。再进一步看,“教学工作”并不仅仅指上课或组织讨论课方面的能力。我们必须设法奖励那些师德高尚的教师,同时惩罚那些师德有问题的教授。因为可能涉及个人偏见,要评价师德说起来容易,做起来困难。但是目前评价制度根本不考察教师个人品德,因此,要改进这一制度并非高不可攀。《失去灵魂的卓越》:P229

 

"What matters to them is learning, not lectures; inspiring, not processing; exploring and not just explaining," said John Lippincott, president of CASE.

"The normal curve is a distribution most appropriate to chance and random activity. Education is a purposeful activity and we seek to have students learn what we would teach. Therefore, if we are effective, the distribution of grades will be anything but a normal curve. In fact, a normal curve is evidence of our failure to teach." - Benjamin Bloom
 
Richard Clark's (1983) famously provocative dictum: "The media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition."

Robert Kozma (1991) countered Clark's dictum with: "While some students will learn a particular task regardless of delivery device, others will be able to take advantage of a particular medium's characteristics to help construct knowledge."

Clark (1994) set forth a more guarded "Replaceability Challenge" (paraphrasing): "We need to ask 'Are there other media that would yield similar learning gains?' If so, then in a design science, we must always choose the *less expensive* way to achieve a learning goal. We must also form our theories around the underlying structural features of the *shared properties* of the interchangeable variables and not base theory on the irrelevant surface features."

This line of reasoning goes down the path that various pedagogies have advantages and disadvantages and that no one pedagogy is “better” or “worse.” In addition, there may be students who take more readily to one pedagogy than to another, but it’s not an all-or-none game.

"Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn."
—Ben Franklin

 In a recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education (http://chronicle.com/article/Teach-Naked-Effort-Strips/47398/) Jose Bowen urged his colleagues to “teach naked,” a phrase he coined to describe class time that is technology-free and focused on discussion.

检视所拥有知识的权利,应该属于每一个学生;同时,作为教师,我们的主要目标必须是帮助学生发现解决他们自己一生中会遇到的问题的重要的、终身享用的答案。  --玛丽埃伦·韦默. 以学习者为中心的教学:给教学实践带来的五项关键变化. 洪岗,译. 杭州:浙江大学出版社, 2006:3.

维拉的忠告:一位好的教师不会把他知道的都教给学生,他只会在需要时把学生想知道的以及学生在有限的时间里能理解的知识教给他们。--同上:48

教学是一种人际关系。与你和会计师之间的人际关系相比较,它要复杂一些;但与婚姻中的人际关系相比较,它要简单一些。但归根结底,作为一种人际关系,教学总有诸多复杂之处。这就是教学不仅是一门技术,而且是一门艺术的原因。--彼德·法林. 教学的乐趣:大学新教师实用指南[M]. 姚晓蒙,陈琼琼,李梅译. 上海:华东师范大学出版社, 200922

The research universities have often failed, and continue to fail, their undergraduate populations, thousands of students graduate without seeing the world-famous professors or tasting genuine research. Boyer Commission (1998, pp. 5-6) 研究性大学已经失败、将来还会继续失败,他们的本科生群体,成千上万的学生在没有见到世界知名的教授或尝试真正的研究的情况下就毕业了。博耶委员会(1998:22)

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