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Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement写一份教学理念陈述  

2011-09-24 08:56:11|  分类: 高等教育 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Prepared by Lee Haugen, Center for Teaching Excellence, Iowa State University, March, 1998

豪根·李,爱荷华州立大学教学卓越中心,19983

Your philosophy of teaching statement should reflect your personal values and the needs of your students and your department. At the least, you will want to address four primary questions, usually in this order.

你的教学理念陈述要反映你个人的价值,以及学生和系科的需求。至少,你要考虑四个基本的问题,通常按以下顺序排列。

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1. To what end?

2. By what means?

3. To what degree?

4. Why?

 

1. To What End?

It is important to start by describing where you want to end. In other words, what are your objectives as a teacher? The rest of your philosophy statement should support these objectives which should be achievable and relevant to your teaching responsibilities; avoid vague or overly grandiose statements. On the other hand, you will want to demonstrate that you strive for more than mediocrity or only nuts-and-bolts transference of facts.

You would certainly want your students to learn the fundamental content of the courses you teach. But beyond that, do you hope to foster critical thinking, facilitate the acquisition of life-long learning skills, prepare students to function effectively in an information economy, or develop problem-solving strategies? What is your role in orienting students to a discipline, to what it means to be an educated person in your field? How do you delineate your areas of responsibility as compared to your students' responsibilities? In what specific ways do you want to improve the education of students in your field? Are there discussions in academic journals or in professional organizations about shortcomings in the education of students today or unmet needs in the discipline and do you have ideas about how to address those shortcomings and needs? If you are going to use teaching in P & T bids, you will probably need to connect to national issues or objectives.

These are questions that will require some thought and you will probably benefit from discussing them with other faculty in your department. Some people can sit down and bang out a paragraph or two in a short time but most of us become more thoughtful about the "big" questions when we bounce them off of our colleagues, consider their responses, re-evaluate our positions, revise, talk some more, etc. Your statement of objectives as a teacher is the most important part of your teaching philosophy and you should take some time with it. And if you take it seriously, you will probably come back to this statement to revise or add to it. Think of it as a work in progress.

1. 要达到什么目标

以描述你想要达到的目标作为开端是非常重要的。换句话说,作为一名教师,你的目标都是些什么?余下的就是,你的教育理念陈述应该支持你所设定的目标,这些目标应该是可以达到并且与你的教学职责是相关的。另一方面,你想要证明的是你不甘平庸,或者仅仅局限于一些事实的具体传递。

你当然希望你的学生学习你所教课程的基本内容。但除此之外,你希望培养学生的批判性思维,促进学生终身学习技能的获得,为学生在信息经济中有效地发挥作用作好准备,或发展学生问题解决的策略吗?你在学生的专业定向和引导上扮演着什么样的角色,在你的领域里一个受过教育的人又是意味着什么呢?比照学生的责任,你又怎样描绘你的责任范围呢?你又会以什么方式来改善你学科领域的学生教育呢?有学术期刊或专业组织有讨论今天的学生教育的缺点或学科未满足的需求吗?而你对陈述这些缺点和需求心里有底吗?

这些问题需要我们进行思考,你可以与系里的其他教师就这些问题展开讨论,或许会有所收益。有些人可以坐下来在短时间内就嘣出一两段,但我们当中的大多数人是把问题抛给我们的同事、考虑其反应、重新评估我们的位置、更多地修正和交谈之后才会把“大”问题考虑得更加周密。作为一名教师,你的目标陈述是你的教学理念的最重要的部分,你应该多花一些时间来考虑。如果你认真对待它,你可能会反复地对它进行的修改和添加。请把它看成是一个进展中的工作。

 

2. By What Means?

When you have a clear idea about your teaching objectives, you can discuss methods that you use to achieve or work toward those objectives. Here is where you can display your knowledge of learning theory, cognitive development, curriculum design, etc. You will want to explain specific strategies, techniques, exercises, and include both what you have used in the past and are planning for future courses. You will want to tie these directly to your teaching objectives and discuss how each approach is designed for that purpose.

Discuss how you make decisions about content, resources, and methods. If you include a field trip, what are your learning objectives? If you assemble a collection of readings, how did you decide what to include? How do you decide whether to use collaborative or individual projects? Do you use active learning or student-centered learning principles and why? Relate these decisions and methods to the kinds of classes you teach (large lecture, small discussion, lab, etc.) and make connections to your course objectives.

Again, relate your methods to national-level needs for teaching in your discipline whenever possible. If you have developed instructional materials that have been or could be disseminated, be sure to discuss them. If you have designed or are planning innovative activities, describe how they address specific teaching objectives. Have you presented a paper or a workshop at a professional conference related to your teaching methods?

2.通过什么方式?

当你对你的教学目标有一个明确的想法后,你接下要讨论的是用何种方法来实现这些目标。这里正是展示你的学习理论知识、认知能力发展、课程设计等的地方。你将要解释的具体策略、技巧和练习,既包括你在过去使用的,也包括计划在接下来的课程中的使用。你会想这些方法直接以配合你的教学目标,并讨论每种方法针对相应的目的是怎样设计的。

讨论你是怎样对内容、资源和方法作出决定的。如果包括实地考察,你的学习目标是什么?如果组合你收集到阅读材料,你是如何决定应该包括哪些内容?你是如何决定使用协作的还是个体的计划?你是否使用积极学习或学生为中心的学习原则以及其中原因又是什么?这些决定和方法与你所教的课堂类型(如大型演讲,小讨论,实验室等)相关联,也与你的课程目标相联系。

再次,尽可能将你的学科教学方法与国家层面的需求相结合。如果你开发的教学材料已经或有可能被传播,那一定要好好讨论这些问题。如果你已经设计或正在规划创新活动,请描述他们是如何应对具体的教学目标的。你是否已经在专业会议提交或参加了与你的教学方法有关一份文件或一个工作坊?

 

3. To What Degree?

You will need to discuss how you intend to measure your effectiveness vis a vis the objectives and methods you have outlined. Because your objectives are most likely related to student learning, then you will probably use measures of student outcomes to reflect your efforts rather than how many chapters you can cover from the textbook. Student evaluations are always a touchy subject among teachers but in large part that is because teachers have not devised their own assessment methods. Most of us are obligated to use standardized evaluation forms. But that does not prevent us from developing other means that are more directly related to our specific goals and objectives. Teachers who develop their own evaluations usually get more relevant feedback. But in addition, they usually get more positive feedback as well because they are asking the students to reflect on the most important aspects of the course.

If one of your objectives is to develop problem-solving skills, then you will probably want to test your students' ability to solve problems. In that case, discuss how you construct problems for them to solve, what skills those problems are meant to evaluate, and the level of performance that you are seeking. As Ronald Myers, Associate Professor in Veterinary Pathology pointed out in his teaching portfolio: I have come to realize that ultimately students learn what we examine for. If we test for learning of facts, students will learn facts. If we test for problem solving, they will learn to be better problem solvers....My long-term goal is to learn more about and then to implement improved mechanisms for assessment of students, likely in the realm of ability-based or performance-based assessment. There are many resources for improving assessment and student evaluations in the [CELT] library.

3.达到何种程度?

你需要讨论的是,相对于你所列的目标和方法,打算如何测量你的效率。因为你的目标针对的主要是学生的学习,那么你很可能会用学生的学习结果来反映你的努力,而不是你的教学覆盖了教科书的多少章节。学生评教对教师来说是一个敏感的问题,但在很大程度上是因为教师没有制定自己的评估方法。我们大多数人被迫使用标准的评价表。但是这并不妨碍我们开发与我们的具体目的和目标更具相关性的方法。教师开发自己的评价方法,通常会得到更多的相关反馈。但除此之外,他们通常也会得到更积极的反馈,因为他们所要求的学生对课程的最重要的方面进行反思。

如果你的目标之一是发展学生解决问题的能力,那么你可能会测试学生解决问题的能力。在这种情况下,讨论如何构想需要学生来解决的问题,那些问题意味着要评价哪些方面的技能,以及你要求学生达到怎样的业绩水平。正如罗纳德迈尔??斯,兽医病理学副教授,在他的教学档案中所指出的:我已经认识到,学生的最终学习才是我们所要检验的。如果我们测试学习的事实,学生将学到相应的事实。如果我们测试解决问题的能力,他们将通过学习成为更好的问题解决者…….我的长期目标是更多地了解然后付诸实施,以改进以对学生的评价机制,才有可能达到基于能力或业绩的评价境界。[CELT]图书馆有很多有关提升评估和学生评价的资源。

4. Why?

Here is where you can be, if not grandiose, at least a bit grand. What, to you, are the great and wonderful rewards of teaching? Why is teaching important? How do you want to make the world or at least higher education better? When you are overworked and feel undervalued, to what ideals do you return in order to rejuvenate yourself and inspire your students? How do you want to make a difference in the lives of your students?

4.为什么呢?

这正你想要的,即使不好大喜功,也至少有点神气。对你来说,什么是教学的最好的回报?为什么教学是重要的?您想怎样使世界或至少高等教育更好些呢?当你劳累过度或觉得价值被低估时,又是什么理想让你振奋自我和激发学生的?你又是怎样来影响学生的一生呢?

 

Text in English is from http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/philosophy.html. 中文部分由浙江师范大学Vick Zhou2011年9月整理翻译,如有不当部分,欢迎批评指正,explorer365@hotmail.com

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