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Learner-Centered Evaluation以学习者为中心的评价  

2011-05-20 17:14:37|  分类: 高等教育 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Posted Tuesday, August 25th, 2009 at 10:46 am by Maryellen Weimer

“If the shift from the instructional to the learning paradigm is to have a lasting impact on education, it must influence not only how people think about teaching but also how teaching is evaluated. Evaluation is one of the primary means by which an institution conveys what is valuable and important to its members. If institutions fail to emphasize student learning in their evaluation practices, they will find it very difficult to promote a focus on student learning. Evaluation practices must be aligned with and support the learning paradigm.” (p. 345)

如果教学范式向学习范式的转变对教育产生持续的影响,这必然不仅仅影响人们怎样对教学进行思考,同时也要对如何对教学进行评价产生影响。 评价是一所院校给其成员传递什么是有价值的和重要的一种基本手段。如果院校无法在其评价实践中强调学生的学习,他们就会发现要聚集于学生的学习是很困难的。评价实践必须与支持学习范式相匹配。(p.345

 

Trav D. Johnson makes this very important point in an article on learning-centered evaluation. He correctly observes that most end-of-course rating systems still focus on teacher performance and course characteristics. This means the purpose and focus of these evaluation activities need to change. In the learning paradigm, “the purpose of evaluating teaching is to determine the effectiveness of teaching in increasing student learning.” (p. 336)

 乔纳森在其一篇关于以学习者为中心的评价文章中提出了这一最常重要的观点。他正确地观察到大部分的课程结束后进行评价的体系更多地还是关注教师的表现和课程的特色。这就意味着这些评价活动的目的和焦点应当有所改变。在学习范式里,评价教学的目的是决定在促进学生学习维度上的教学有效性。(p.336

 

And what questions might be asked on a learning-centered evaluation instrument? Johnson recommends questions in the following four areas. I’ve also included a couple of the same questions he proposes for each.

 在以学习为中心的评价工具方面,哪些问题是我们应该了解的呢?乔纳森给我们介绍以下四个方面的一些问题。我也提到了一些他所建议的各个方面的相同问题。

 

Learning Goals: What are students expected to learn? Are these the most valuable/important learning goals from student in this course?

学习目标:什么内容是学生想学的?这些是这门课程中源自学生的最有价值最重要的学习目标的吗? 

 

Learning Activities: What learning activities are students expected to engage in? Are learning activities designed to maximize student achievement of the learning goals?

学习活动:哪些学习活动是学生所希望参与的?为学生达成最优的学习目标 ,对学习活动进行合理设计了吗?

 

Learning Assessments: How is student learning assessed in this course? Are assessments accurate measures of student learning?

学习评价:如何评价此门课程中学生的学习?这些评价准确测量了学生的学习了吗?

 

Learning Outcomes: What evidence can demonstrate that students learned what was expected? Have students achieved the learning goals?

 学习结果:哪些证据能够表明学生已经学到了我们所期望的?学生达到学习目标了吗?

 

Reference: Johnson, T. D. (2009). Learner-centered evaluation of teaching. In Nilson, L. B. and Miller, J. E., (eds.) To Improve the Academy, 27, 332-348.

参考文献:约翰逊,T. D.(2009). 以学习者为中心的教学评价. 收于尼尔森, L. B. 和米勒,J. E.编辑的提升大学,27卷,332-348页。

Text in English is from http://www.teachingprofessor.com/articles/teaching-and-learning/learner-centered-evaluation. 中文部分由浙江师范大学Vick Zhou20115月整理翻译,如有不当部分,欢迎批评指正,explorer365@hotmail.com

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